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时间:2021-12-27 10:53 点击次数:
  本文摘要:The US looks like a Wild West for personal data. Information gathered by companies — most prominently Google and Facebook — trades at lightning speed on advertising markets that most users do not even know exist. If search engines and soci


The US looks like a Wild West for personal data. Information gathered by companies — most prominently Google and Facebook — trades at lightning speed on advertising markets that most users do not even know exist. If search engines and social networks can turn customer data into cash, why should broadband sellers such as Verizon be excluded from the gold rush?就本人数据来讲,美国看起来像慌野中西部(Wild West)。公司——主要是Google(Google)和Facebook——收集的信息以雷击一样的速率在大部分用户乃至不告知不会有的广告宣传销售市场上买卖。

假如百度搜索引擎和社交媒体能够把用户数据转换变成现钱,Verizon等光纤宽带服务提供商为何要被逃避在这次淘金热以外?That is the cynical, if understandable, reaction to a vote by Republican lawmakers to do away with data rules faced by cable and telecoms companies. A Federal Communications Commission regulation, adopted days before last November’s election, would force broadband providers to get permission from customers before selling on data about them. Congress has voted to reverse that requirement.它是对美国美国民主党立法委员网络投票废除有线数字电视和电力公司应对的数据标准的消极悲观(假如说能够讲解得话)的反映。上年十一月美国总统选举几日前,联邦政府通讯联合会(FCC)执行一项要求,白鱼强制性光纤宽带服务提供商在售卖用户数据前必不可少得到 用户批准。美国国会已网络投票注销这一回绝。

There are good arguments for placing limits on the owners of the “pipes” that carry the internet that do not apply to the services that travel over those pipes. Consumers already pay for internet access. Many might not be pleased to discover that the networks are making extra money by trading in their personal data. Many US broadband markets are also a duopoly. Customers unhappy with the terms of service have few options.有非常好的原因对支撑点互联网技术总流量的“管路”的使用者进行允许,而对紧密结合管路获得的服务项目不拒绝这种允许。顾客早就为互联网技术终端设备交纳了花费。很多人 有可能抵触互联网服务提供商根据买卖她们的本人数据来赚赚钱。


另外美国各地的光纤宽带销售市场正处在双强独享情况。不心寒该类服务条款的用户非常少有别的自由选择。Yet a two-tier privacy regime entrenches Google and Facebook in a market where they are already dominant. Advertisers want more choice, and supported the Republican Congress’ position. The big players of search and social networking are themselves becoming unavoidable utilities.殊不知,这类二级隐私保护维护保养体制牢固了Google和Facebook在他们早就操纵的销售市场中的影响力。

广告主期待有更为多自由选择,他们抵制美国民主党核心的美国国会的观点。寻找和社交媒体行业的大佬自身也已变成避开无法的公共事业。One response would be for Congress to level the privacy standards up, not down. But with the new administration bent on cutting the power of agencies such as the FCC, that is too much to hope for. It is also not clear how much consumers benefit from the “opt-in” rules that the broadband companies have been facing. Brussels adopted a regime like this, forcing websites to warn visitors that they plant tracking “cookies” for advertising purposes, and to seek approval. For most users, clicking their approval became a reflex.一个对于此事将是由美国美国国会提升(并非上涨)隐私保护维护保养规范。



对大部分用户而言,网页页面完全同意已沦落下意识。The debate should not be reduced to a simple choice, where companies are either required to seek customers’ approval before selling their personal data (an opt-in regime), or are free to use it unless customers say otherwise (opt out). To be effective, such a binary choice would require much better-informed consumers with more options. It is not clear to most people why — other than a vague sense of dread — they should worry about their data being shown to advertisers. By contrast, the benefits of ad-supported internet services are obvious.这次争辩不应该被改动为一个比较简单的自由选择——企业或者被拒绝在售卖用户本人数据以前征求用户完全同意(可选择性重进体制),或是随意用以这种数据,除非是用户说不(可选择性散伙体制)。为了更好地切实可行,这类二中选一的自由选择将依靠信息更加高阳市、具有更为多自由选择的顾客。除开模模糊糊的恐惧心理,大部分人并不准确自身为什么要忧虑本人数据被获得给广告主。

比较之下,由广告宣传烘托的信息服务的好处是不言而喻的。Internet users still do not know enough about the digital dossiers that have been built up about them. Internet companies have gone some way to letting their users see what assumptions about them have been sold to advertisers. But the data are tricky to find, and patchy. Sensible regulation would require that the disclosures are always one click away, and mandate periodic “push” notifications about the information being collected.互联网技术用户仍过度了解公司对她们建立的数据档案资料。互联网企业已成本一定期待让用户看到,有关她们的什么假定被卖给了广告主。但这种数据难以找寻,且产自零散。

有效的管控标准理应回绝信息表露根据一次网页页面才可顺利完成,并回绝对收集的信息发布规律性“启动”通告。Another idea would be to give customers the option to pay for Google or Facebook — in return for seeing no advertising and a guarantee that no information is collected. Average ad revenue per US user at Facebook, for example, is $6 a month (and a fraction of that in the rest of the world). If users could pay that sum in return for Facebook’s technology protecting, rather than selling, their personal information, only a few might do so. For that few, though, the option might be very valuable — and its very existence might make all users think more about the trade-offs they are making.另一个构想是给用户向Google或Facebook收费标准的决定权——以交换条件见到一切广告宣传,也没一切数据被收集的保证。比如,Facebook上每一个美国用户每个月均值带来的广告宣传盈利是6美元(其他国家更为较少)。




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